Butterfly : the secret behind the marvelous wings
created by : zefania maleeva ^^
Butterfly are animals that have a lot of uniqueness, from metamorphosis to the way a beautiful flight. Butterfly is one kind of insect species of wildlife that has a beautiful color and shape of the wing. In nature, the butterfly has an important value, that is as pollinators in the process of fertilization rates. This ecologically butterfly participate in maintaining the role of ecosystem balance and enrich biodiversity. Butterflies usually live in terrestrial habitats and species composition varies according to habitat conditions. Diversity of butterfly species and its habitat is very wide from lowland to high mountain forests, 0000-2000 masl. Courtyard house is one of the butterfly habitat. The existence of the butterfly is influenced by vegetation composition and environmental conditions around and magnitude of human disturbance. Economically, the butterfly has a high selling value and is a recreational object. The economic potential is what causes the butterfly much sought after by foreign tourists, either to enjoy its beauty in the wild or to be collected as a memento, or for the benefit of science. Survival of the butterfly is supported by the availability of plants as food resources, both at the larval stage (caterpillar), as well as on the stage of imago (adult butterflies), and the availability of plants that can serve as a protector. In addition, the factor is also needed enough light, clean air, and water as the materials needed to maintain humidity environments where these butterflies alive. Adult butterflies on average a month old. in the wild age shorter because of predators, disease, or other factors. extremes such as Monarch butterflies, Mourning cloaks, and tropical heliconian can live up to nine months, the smallest butterfly is only one week old. Butterflies, including species of insects in classification, it’s grouped as the order Lepidoptera, the insect wings covered in scales. The number of species of butterfly that has been known throughout the world is estimated there are about 13 000, and probably several thousand species in the determination of pending. Butterfly including animals that help the pollination of plants, called the pollinator. Butterflies live almost all over the world. According to a note in the world there are about 20,000 species of butterflies. Indonesia is the owner of the largest butterfly in the world after Brazil. Indonesia has around 2500 species of butterfly. While Brazil’s Amazon jungle, has the highest kind of around 3000 species of butterfly. High levels of endemism are very clearly visible on the Indonesian butterfly, which reaches more than 35 percent of the total number of species was ranked first in the world. Peru, Brazil and other countries in South America has only butterflies endemic level of less than 10 percent of the total amount of kinds. That is, the uniqueness of Indonesian butterflies far exceeds any other country in the world. Sulawesi is an island that has a unique butterfly highest in Indonesia. Of the 557 species there, as many as 239 species (more than 40 percent) are the types that can only be found in the region, eg Papilio blumei. Of the many species of butterfly in Indonesia, there are 19 species that have been included in the list of protected species in Indonesia, namely Cethosia myrina known as lace butterfly wings and was only found in Sulawesi, Trogonoptera brookiana known as the butterfly Brooke king butterflies were found in Sumatra and Kalimantan. 16 species of butterfly from the genus Ornithoptera or bird wing butterfly found in Maluku and Papua. 11 species of butterfly from the genus Troides known as the butterfly king (eg Troides hypolitus). Most are found in western Indonesia and Sulawesi, and some species are in Maluku and Papua. Bird-wing butterflies Ornithoptera aesacus which is found only on the island of Obi (North Maluku). Bird-wing butterflies Ornithoptera Croesus found only on islands in North Maluku. 60 butterfly species found in Lampung.
Butterflies and moths (butterfly) are insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera, or ‘winged insect scales’ (lepis, scales and pteron, wings). Simply put, the butterfly is distinguished from moths aka streetwalker based on active time and physical characteristics. Butterflies are generally active during the daytime (diurnal), while gengat most active at night (nocturnal). Butterflies rest or perch with enforcing its wings, moth perched with its wings spread. Butterflies usually have a bright beautiful colors, moths tend to be dark, dull or gray. However, these differences there are always exception, so that scientifically can not hold onto that for sure. (Van Mastrigt and Rosariyanto, 2005).
Butterflies and moths is difficult to distinguish. This is understandable, given that the separation of Lepidoptera into butterflies and moths is a general classification, rather than one that is recognized by taxonomists. While the “moth” is an artificial group, defined simply as everything in the order that was not a butterfly. Butterflies, on the other hand, is a natural group, in that they are all considered to have descended from common ancestors, but they have no formal taxonomic rank.
Simply put, the butterfly is distinguished from moths aka streetwalker based on active time and physical characteristics. Butterflies are generally active during the daytime (diurnal), while gengat most active at night (nocturnal). Butterflies rest or perch with enforcing its wings, moth perched with its wings spread. Butterflies usually have a bright beautiful colors, moths tend to be dark, dull or gray. However, these differences there are always exception, so that scientifically can not hold onto that for sure.
In addition to the above differences, the butterfly moth fields can also be distinguished by looking at the characteristics of physical features namely through:
- Antennae. Most butterflies have thin, slender, filamentous antennae, which are club-shaped at the end, while moths often have comb-like or feathery antennae, or filamentous and unclubbed. This distinction is the basis for the non-standard taxonomic divisions in the Lepidoptera—the Rhopalocera (“clubbed horn,” the butterflies) and the Heterocera (“varied horn,” the moths).
- Wing coupling mechanisms. Many moths have a frenulum, which is a filament arising from the hindwing and coupling with barbs on the forewing. The frenulum can be observed only when a specimen is in hand. Butterflies lack these structures.
- Pupae. Most moth caterpillars spin a cocoon made of silk within which they metamorphose into the pupal stage. Most butterflies on the other hand form an exposed pupa, which is also termed as a chrysalis.
- Coloration of the wings. Most butterflies have bright colors on their wings. Nocturnal moths on the other hand are usually plain brown, gray, white, or black and often with obscuring patterns of zigzags or swirls, which help camouflage them as they rest during the day. However many day-flying moths are brightly colored, particularly if they are toxic. A few butterflies are also plain-colored, like the Cabbage White butterfly.
- Structure of the body. Moths tend to have a stout and hairy or furry-looking bodies, while butterflies have slender and smoother abdomens. Moths have larger scales on their wings that make them look more dense and fluffy. Butterflies, on the other hand, possess fine scales. This difference is possibly due to the need for moths to conserve heat during the cooler nights, whereas butterflies are able to absorb solar radiation.
- Behavioral differences. Most moths are nocturnal or crepuscular, while most butterflies are diurnal. Moths usually rest with their wings spread out to their sides. Butterflies frequently fold their wings above their backs when they are perched, although they will occasionally “bask” with their wings spread for short periods.
However, because there are many exceptions to each characteristic, may be better to think of butterflies as a group-to-day flying moths.
A major study combining morphological and molecular data, concluded that Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Riodinidae could all be strongly supported as monophyletic clades, but the status of Nymphalidae is equivocal. Lycaenidae and Riodinidae were confirmed as sister taxa, and Papilionidae as the outgroup to the rest of the true butterflies, but the location of Pieridae within the pattern of descent was unclear, with different lines of evidence suggesting different conclusions. The data suggested that the moths of Hedyloidea are indeed more closely related to the butterflies than to other moths.
Some older classifications recognize additional families, for example Danaidae, Heliconiidae, Libytheidae, and Satyridae, but modern classifications treat these as subfamilies within the Nymphalidae.
Presently, butterflies are classified in two superfamilies, Hesperioidea, consisting of the ‘skippers,’ and Papilionoidea, or ‘true butterflies.’ Skippers differ in several important ways from the remaining butterflies. Skippers have the antennae clubs hooked backward, have stocky bodies, and possess stronger wing muscles and better eyes. However, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea are considered sister taxa, so the butterflies collectively are thought to constitute a true clade. Some modern taxonomists place them all in superfamily Papilionoidea, distinguishing the skippers from the other butterflies at the series level only. In this system, Papilionoidea consists of the series Hesperiiformes (with one family only, the skipper family Hesperiidae) and the series Papilioniformes (with five families). When skippers are classified in the superfamily Hesperioidea, it also includes the one family, the Hesperiidae.
The five families of true butterflies usually recognized in the Papilionoidea are:
- Family Papilionidae, the Swallowtails and Birdwings
- Family Pieridae, the Whites and Yellows
- Family Lycaenidae, the Blues and Coppers, also called the Gossamer-Winged Butterflies
- Family Riodinidae, the Metalmark butterflies
- Family Nymphalidae, the Brush-footed butterflies
Butterflies and moths so many kinds. In Java and Bali alone recorded more than 600 species of butterflies. Type moths so far have not made the full list, but suspected there were hundreds of species (Whitten et al., 1999). Butterflies also become one of the few types of insects that are harmless to humans.
Many people who like beautiful butterflies, but otherwise very few people who do not feel disgust at the caterpillar, though both are the same creature. All types of butterflies and moths through the stages of life as an egg, caterpillar, chrysalis, and finally metamorphosed into a butterfly or moth. Butterflies generally live by sucking nectar (nectar / flower essence). However, some species like the fluid sucked from the fruit that fell on the ground and decay, carrion, bird droppings, and wet soil.
Unlike butterflies, caterpillars live mainly by eating leaves. Caterpillars are very greedy, but generally each type of leaf eating caterpillars specialize plant species that only certain. So the presence of a species of butterfly in one place, is also determined by availability of host plants, which become larvae.
Arts butterfly was amazing. This creature, with wings of different colors and the graceful way of flying like living jewels .. However, a great way is not the only feature of a butterfly. Short-lived creatures sometimes perform such calculations are done by experts. For example, as a moth, which we discussed before, the body heat of a butterfly must be at a certain level so that he can fly. Let us look at what butterflies do to overcome this problem. Colia butterfly can not fly when its body temperature below 28oC (83oF). If it this way, the butterfly opens its wings to open the upper side in order to hit the sun, and collected abundant sunshine at right angles. If the body temperature rises to 40oC (104oF), the butterflies will rotate 90 degrees, then receive sunlight horizontally. With this action, the butterfly can absorb heat through the wings as little as possible, so that their body temperature decreases.
In addition, this butterfly species has a small dark spots on its wings. These spots, which serves to maintain a higher body temperature, not in any place. The spots are located near the points of the body most in need of warmth. Thanks to this special design, delivery of hot spots that warms quickly to the other body parts become easier because of the distance that must be taken to transmit the heat is now shortened. Other species of butterfly in the same way to increase their body temperature. other species of butterfly wings in the sun to direct such a way that all the rays focused on certain parts of the body most in need of warmth, in the same way as a lens to work.
Butterfly makes Indonesia got the nickname “The Kingdom of Butterfly”. This is reasonable because Indonesia is a tropical country which has the largest tropical forest in the world. As is known, the tropical forest is the habitat most preferred by butterflies.
Because many species of butterflies that live in Indonesia, the people of Europe are interested to explore it. Although not known for certain, the people of Europe, especially from England, has been exploiting a wide range of butterfly species from Indonesia since the 1800s.
Not only that, a British scientist, Alfred Russel Wallace in the period 1856-1867 managed to find hundreds of species of butterflies are fluttering in the forests of Indonesia. However, the number of butterfly species continued to decline every year. According to estimates, approximately 50% of butterfly species from Indonesia have become extinct. The forest reduced to be the cause of the disappearance of a number of butterfly species in Indonesia. Plus the exploitation of wild butterflies for insectarium and research. That is why wealth terjarah butterflies and several species have become extinct. If found, the only child types or subspecies. From the result, of about 17 500 species of butterflies of the world, not less than 1600 species spread across Indonesia. The amount is only rivaled in the tropical South American countries like Peru and Brazil. Butterflies in Indonesia certainly has the endemic distribution. That means, the habitat of certain species of butterflies exist in only one region in Indonesia. Of the 1600 species of butterflies that are spread in Indonesia, approximately 30% are endemic distribution. Therefore, a lot of butterflies in Indonesia is unique in having the world’s highest diversity of butterflies in Indonesia continued to decline and disappear. Increasing human populations and forests over the function that eliminates destruction of trees is a major factor Indonesian endemic butterflies. Most densely populated island of Java island as its human population, most often exploited by the butterfly. From the data obtained, in Java there are about 500 species of butterflies. However, the increasing human population and the increasing transfer of functions of forests, causing the butterfly population Java increasingly driven into the forest. In addition, the butterflies also have a very important value, and can be grouped into economic values, ecology, endemism, conservation, aesthetic, educational and cultural values.
1. Economic Value.
There are several types of butterflies that have a significant economic value because it has a selling price in the market is quite high. Not only the imago that can be sold in the form of a souvenir, but rather a cocoon has a relatively high export value.
2. Aesthetic value.
Butterflies have a very high aesthetic value because of the color of its wings a charming and very artistic. These colors are sometimes a camouflage as a strategy to avoid or frighten predators.
3. Value of Education.
The butterfly has a high educational value, in which students and students can conduct research on various aspects of these butterflies.
4. Value of endemism.
Some species of butterflies have endemism values, whether in the form of regional endemism, islands and local endemism. Type of local endemism is very vulnerable to extinction, thus requiring the most attention.
5. Conservation Value.
Several species of butterfly has a high conservation value because the status of endangered. This also applies to species of butterfly endemic, especially the local endemic status.
6. Cultural Values.
Society has long used the butterfly resources, whether for sale or simply used as decoration. Even recently, society has can make soufinir of butterfly wings arranged in the form of decorative and fine arts valued.
1.3.1 Butterfly Metamorphosis
1.3.2 Anatomy of a Butterfly’s body
1.3.3 butterfly life cycle and habitat for butterflies
1.3.4 Causes of butterfly wings have many colors
1.3.5 Types of Butterflies butterfly in Sulawesi
1.4 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
1.4.1 How the butterfly morphed?
1.4.1 How the body anatomy of butterflies?
1.4.3 How is the life cycle of butterflies and butterfly habitat?
1.4.4 What causes the butterfly wings have many colors?
1.4.5 What type of butterfly butterfly in Sulawesi?
writing this paper aims to
1.4.1 Fulfillment of the paper work to Mr. Ch. Kahuweka
1.4.2 Find out more information about the life of Butterfly
1.5.1 The research method used in the writing of this paper is descriptive research.
1.5.2 Techniques used in the writing of this paper is a review of the literature.
2.1 BUTTERFLY METAMORPHOSIS
Life cycle is made up of the stages that a living organism goes through during its lifetime from beginning to end. A butterfly undergoes a process called complete metamorphosis during its life cycle. This means that the butterfly changes completely from its early larval stage, when it is a caterpillar, until the final stage, when it becomes a beautiful and graceful adult butterfly. Unlike many insects, butterflies do not experience the period of nymphs (immature insects, whose shape is that the adults), but must go through the pupa stage, which lies between the larva and adult stage (imago).
* The larvae, known as caterpillar
* Pupa (cocoon)
* Adult butterfly (imago)
- Ø Eggs
The first stage of the life cycle of the butterfly is the egg or ovum. Butterfly eggs are small, varying in color and may be spherical, cylindrical or oval. Female butterfly eggs attached to the leaves or stems of plants that will also serve as a suitable food source for the larvae when they hatch.
Butterfly egg consists of layers of hard-ridged outer shell, called the chorion. It is coated with a thin layer of wax, which prevents the egg from drying out before the larvae have time to fully develop. Each egg contains a number of small funnel-shaped opening at one end, called micropyles, the purpose of these holes is to allow sperm to enter and fertilize an egg. Butterfly and moth eggs vary greatly in size between species, but they all either round or oval.
Butterfly eggs are fixed to the leaf with a special glue which hardens rapidly. As hardened, the egg shape deformation contract. This glue is easily seen around the base of each egg, forming a meniscus properties of glue is unknown and is a suitable subject for research . Same glue is produced by the pupa to secure the setae of the cremaster. This glue is very hard that the silk, the setae are glued, can not be separated.
Eggs are usually laid on plants. Each type of butterfly has its own range hostplant and while some butterfly species restricted to one crop, others use various types of plants, often including family members of the public.
Egg stage lasts several weeks in the butterfly, but the eggs are placed closest to the winter, especially in temperate climates, go through diapause (resting) stage, and hatching can occur only in the spring .. Other butterflies may lay them in the spring and they hatch in the summer. Butterflies are typically northern species, such as the Mourning Cloak (Camberwell Beauty) and the Large and Small Tortoiseshell butterflies.
Larvae, or caterpillars, which hatch from eggs is the second phase in the life cycle. Hard outer skin or exoskeleton, however, did not grow or stretch along with caterpillar rearing. In contrast, the old exoskeleton is shed in a process called molting and replaced by an exoskeleton, a new and larger. Silkworm as much as possible through 4-5 molts before becoming a pupa. Larvae, or caterpillars, are multi-eat-legged machine. They consume plant leaves and spent almost all their time looking for food. Butterfly larvae, or caterpillars, consume plant leaves and spent almost all their time looking for food. Although most herbivorous caterpillars, some species such as epius Spalgis and brassolis Liphyra are entomophagous (insect eating).
Some larvae, especially those of the Lycaenidae, form associations with ants. They communicate with the ants using vibrations that are transmitted through the substrate and using chemical signals. The ants provide some degree of protection against these larvae and they in turn gather honeydew secretions.
Caterpillars mature through a series of stages, called instars. Towards the end of each instar, the larvae have apolysis process called, in which the cuticle, which is a tough cover mixtures of chitin and specialized proteins, is released from the epidermis epidermis and begin to form a new cuticle beneath. At the end of each instar, larva molts the old cuticle, and the new cuticle rapidly hardens and pigments. Development of butterfly wing patterns begins by the last larval instar.
Caterpillar has three pairs of true legs from the chest segments and up to 6 pairs of prolegs arising from the abdominal segments, but not always, have a few pairs of true legs, along with several pairs of false legs or prolegs. These prolegs have rings of small hooks called crochets that help them grip the substrate.
Some caterpillars have the ability to inflate parts of their heads to look like a snake. Many false eye-spots to enhance this effect. Some caterpillars have special structures called osmeteria which turned out to produce a chemical smell.
Host plants often have toxic substances in them and caterpillars are able to confiscate substances and retain them into the adult stage. This helps make them uncomfortable for birds and other predators. unpalatibility is advertised using bright red, orange, black or white warning. Toxic chemicals in plants are often evolved specifically to prevent them from being eaten by insects .. Insects in turn develop countermeasures or use this poison for their own survival. This “arms race” has led coevolution of insects and their host plants.
- Ø Wing development in larval stage
Butterflies come from the specialized and prolific lineage of holometabolous insects, which means that wings or wing pads are not visible outside of the larvae, but when larvae dissected, tiny developing “wing disk” can be found on the second and third thoracic segments, where the spiracles are clearly on abdominal segments. Wings or wing pads are not visible outside of the larvae, but when larvae dissected, tiny developing wing disks can be found on the third and second segments of the chest, where a clear spiracles on abdominal segment.
Wing disks develop in relation with the trachea that runs along the bottom of the wings, and surrounded by a thin membrane peripodial, associated with the outer epidermis of larvae with small channel.
Wing disks develop in relation with the trachea that runs along the bottom of the wings, and surrounded by a “membrane peripodial,” associated with a thin outer epidermis of larvae with small channels.
Wing disks are very small until the last larval instar, when they increased dramatically in size, that attacks by branching tracheae from the wing base that precede the formation of wing veins, and begin to express the molecular markers in patterns associated with several landmarks of the wing .
Near pupation, the wings are forced outside the epidermis under pressure from the hemolymph (fluid in the circulatory system is open), and although they are initially quite flexible and fragile, when the pupa breaks free of the larval cuticle they have adhere closely to the outer cuticle of the pupa (in pupae obtect .) Within hours, the shape of the wing cuticle so hard and well to join the body that pupae can be taken and handled without damage to the wing.
- Ø Pupa
The third stage is known as a pupa or chrysalis. caterpillar attached to the twig, a wall or some other support and exoskeleton splits open to reveal the chrysalis. cocoon that hangs like a small sack until the transformation to a butterfly finish. Casual observer might think that because the pupae are moving very little happened during this “resting stage.” However, in that the structure of silkworm cocoon shell is broken down and reconstituted into the body, wings and feet of adult butterflies. pupae do not feed but instead get their energy from food eaten by the larvae stage. Depending on the species, the pupa stage can last for several days or may last for more than a year. Many butterfly species overwinter or hibernate as pupae.
When the larva exceeds a minimum weight at a certain time of day, it will stop eating and begin to “wander” in an attempt for a suitable pupation site, usually the lower leaves. These larvae turn into pupae (cocoons), which later turned into a butterfly by metamorphosis. To change from the miniature wings visible on the outside of the pupa into large structures that can be used to fly, the wings of pupae experienced rapid mitosis and absorb a lot of nutrients. If one wing of early surgery, the other three will grow to a larger size. In the pupa, the wing structure that becomes compressed from top to bottom and pleated from proximal to distal end such as growing, so quickly can be folded to full adult size. Some of the limits shown in the adult color pattern are marked by changes in the expression of specific transcription factors in early pupae.
When the larva is fully grown, hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) are produced. These larvae turn into pupa (or chrysalis) by anchoring itself to the substrate and moulting for the last time. s. pupae are usually unable to move, although some species can move quickly abdominal segments or produce sounds to scare off potential predators.
Transformation chrysalis into a butterfly through metamorphosis has held great fascination for mankind. To change from the miniature wings visible on the outside of the pupa into large structures that can be used to fly, the wings of pupae experienced rapid mitosis and absorb a lot of nutrients. If one wing of early surgery, the other three will grow to a larger size. In the pupa, the wing structure that becomes compressed from top to bottom and pleated from proximal to distal end such as growing, so quickly can be folded to full adult size. Some of the limits shown in the adult color pattern are marked by changes in the expression of specific transcription factors in early pupae.
- Adult Butterfly or Imago
The fourth and final stage of the adult life cycle. After the split casing chrysalis, the butterfly emerged. This will eventually mate and lay eggs to start the cycle all over again. Most adult butterflies live only one or two weeks, while some species can live for 18 months.
Today, sexually mature, stage of the insect known as the imago. For Lepidoptera, butterflies have four wings covered with small scales, but, unlike most moths, the fore-and hindwings are not hooked together, allowing more graceful flight. A butterfly has six legs, larva also has six true legs and a number of prolegs but in nymphalids, the first pair is reduced. After it emerges from the pupa stage, he can not fly for some time, because it has not folded its wings. A butterfly emerging need to spend some time ‘inflating’ wings with blood and letting them dry, as long as it is very vulnerable to predators.
Some butterfly wings’ may take up to three hours to dry while others take about an hour. Most butterflies and moths will remove excess dye after hatching .. This fluid may be white, red, orange, or in rare cases, blue.
2.2 ANATOMY OF A BUTTERFLY’S BODY
Butterflies have a body that consists of 3 parts, namely the head, thorax (chest) and abdominal (stomach). Like other insects, the body of the butterfly in the crutch by the outer frame of “exoskeleton” where the muscle and internal organs attached on the inner side. Head and chest is equipped with muscles that act as a means of motion of the mouth parts and wings. Largely outside the framework of an impermeable layer of chitin is not soluble in water and organic acids. In nature, dead insects, can only be in Destroy with the help of microorganisms.
Head movement was limited butterflies, consists of six sections. The first three sections associated with 3 components namely sensory compound eye, single eye and antenna or antennae. Three other head segments associated with the mouth. Mandible (lower jaw) butterfly originally as a means biter, reduced maxillary, adapted as a means of suction, tube-shaped parts of a united, called a proboscis. When the proboscis is not being used in the roll, and can extend back to suck the nectar of flowers. Palpus labialis, is a very sensitive part of the lips as a tentacle.
The antenna, located at the tip of the head and movable in all directions, usually soft like yarn. In some families, the antenna end portion enlarged, hairy, shaped like a comb on both sides or even shaped like a feather. The antenna is also equipped with nerve cells that serves as the olfactory and touch. Compound eyes located on either side of the head, which is composed of optical unit called omatidia. Butterflies have a sharp eye remedy especially at close range, so the butterfly could fly among the trees. In addition to having compound eyes of butterflies have oceli or single eye. Oseli is hidden or covered by fine hairs. So oseli difficult to see without revealing these hairs. The function of this oseli not fully known perhaps as a tool to sharpen the vision of compound eyes work.
Thoracic butterfly is very different from the head and abdomen. This thoracic place attach head connected by a thin membrane that is the neck so the head can be in motion. Thoracic butterfly comes with a strong joints to form a box, which completely contains the muscle, divided into protoraks, mesotoraks and metatoraks. Pair of front legs attached to the pro-thorax, while the middle legs and the pair front wings attached to the meso thorax. Meta thoracic attach the rear leg pair and pair rear wing. The second and third thoracic vertebra (meso and metatoraks) is a strong supporter of the second pair of butterfly wings. In addition to the legs and wings, on both sides of the thorax is equipped with 2 pairs of spiracles hole, which serves sebgai breathing hole. Butterfly leg consists of koksa, trockhanter, femur, tibia and tarsus. Tarsus usually 5 vertebra which is equipped with a pair of nail. The number of these segments of tarsus vary widely depending on gender. The front legs of butterflies are usually very sensitive, very useful in recognizing the existence of nectar, flowers or partner. Besides the butterfly leg sometimes equipped with a spine or spur that is useful to assist walking.
Butterfly wings are generally almost triangular in shape, but some butterfly families vary widely. Butterfly wings on the cover by fine scales, under microscope looks very different shape is a rounded, elongated and there which resemble arrows. The scales are made of butterfly wings become colorful. The wing is the most important organ for the movement of butterflies in the form of a thin membrane and is equipped with the veins so that strengthen the wings attach to the thorax. Distribution of veins is the same in every species of butterfly. Or branching shape and arrangement of streaks or veins wing (when scales removed) can be one of the characteristics to identify species of butterfly.
3. Abdominal (stomach)
Stomach butterflies are basically consists of 10 segments, with the last segment experienced a genital modification. On the sides of the abdomen, there are 6 to 7 pairs of spiracles. In the abdomen there are means of digestion, heart, organs of excretion and genital organs, as well as a complex system of muscles.
2.3 BUTTERFLY LIFE CYCLE AND HABITAT FOR BUTTERFLIES
Life cycle of a butterfly adult average only about 2 weeks. An adult butterfly on average a month old. Butterflies in the natural age shorter because predators, diseases, as well as a larger moving objects like cars. Even so, as described North American Butterfly Association, there is also an extreme such as Monarch butterflies, Mourning cloak, and the tropical heliconian that can live up to nine months. In contrast the smallest butterfly is only one week old. Overall life cycle begins with eggs (eggs), caterpillar (larva / pupa / caterpillar), pupa (chrysalis), a butterfly (butterfly) or moth (moth). In a short life cycle, some species of butterflies can migrate in certain seasons such as the type of Mourning Cloak, Painted Lady, American Lady, Red Admiral, Common Buckeye and migrating from Mexico to avoid the dry season into the northern United States by taking 4000 to 4800 km distance (2500-3000 miles). (Image: Red Admiral Butterfly).
Butterflies, like other animals, also interact to humans, such as in the depiction of motifs in the culture of some tribes (the Egyptian people have used the butterfly as hieroglyphs around 3500 years ago). Butterflies can also be an insect crushing / destroying crops, especially from the family / family Tortricidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae. But more (usually / almost all) is useful in pollination (pollination) plants.
Especially for Family: Bombycidae, Genus: Bombyx, Species: B. mandarina and B. mori that caterpillars produce silk fibers. Bombyx mandarina “the Wild Silkmoth” and Bombyx mori “the silkworm of the mulberry tree” or “the domesticated silk moth” is a type of moth that is cultivated in order to produce silk fibers that eventually form the silk fabric. Based on the characteristics of the van Mastrigt, silkworms should include the “moth”, not a butterfly.
- Ø Habit
Butterflies live primarily on nectar from flowers. Some foods are also derived from pollen, tree sap, rotting fruit, dung, and dissolved minerals in wet sand or dirt. Butterflies play an important ecological role as pollinators. As adult, butterflies can only consume liquids through their trunks. They regularly feed on nectar and drank water from damp patches. This they do for water, for energy from sugars in nectar and for sodium and other minerals that are essential for their reproduction.
Some species of butterflies need more sodium than provided by nectar they drink from flowers. As such, they are attracted to the sodium in salt.
Besides damp patches, some butterflies also visit dung, rotting fruit, or carcasses to obtain essential minerals they need.
Butterflies feel the air for scent, wind and nectar using their antennae. antenna come in various shapes and colors. The hesperids have pointed angle or hook to the antenna.
Some butterflies, such as Monarch butterflies, which migrate. Indeed, the migration of monarch butterflies far exceeds the lifetime of an individual Monarch.
The butterfly is a complex creature. Their daily lives can be characterized by many activities. If you’re observant you can see the butterflies very much involved in following activities. To observe some activities, such as hibernation, may involve some detective work. To observe other activities such as sunbathing, this mud-puddling, or migration, you will need to be in the right place at the right time. Keep the activity log and see how many different butterflies that you can see are involved in every activity. Information from the pages of individual butterflies can give you some pointers to where (or on any crop), some activities that may occur. Antennal shape in the Lepidoptera from CT Bingham (1905) Australian painted lady feeding on flowering shrubs. Butterflies feed primarily on nectar from flowers. Some foods are also derived from pollen, tree sap, rotting fruit, dung, rotting flesh, and dissolved minerals in wet sand or dirt. Butterflies important as pollinators for some plant species, although in general they do not carry as much as bee pollen load. But they were able to move pollen greater distances.
As adults, butterflies consume only liquids and this is sucked through their trunks. They feed on nectar from flowers and also drink water from damp patches. This they do for water, for energy from sugars in nectar and for sodium and other minerals that are essential for their reproduction. Some species of butterflies need more sodium than provided by nectar. They are attracted to sodium in salt and they sometimes land on people, attracted by human sweat. Besides damp patches, some butterflies also visit dung, rotting fruit or carcasses to obtain minerals and nutrients. In many species, this behavior of mud-pelumpuran is limited to men, and studies have suggested that the nutrients collected are given as a wedding gift along with the spermatophore during mating.
Butterflies feel the air for scent, wind and nectar using their antennae. antennas come in various shapes and colors. The hesperids have pointed angle or hook to the antenna, while other families show knobbed antennae most. This antenna is rich covered with sensillae. A sense of feeling butterflies is coordinated by chemoreceptors on Tarsi, who work only on contact, and is used to determine whether the offspring of insects will lay eggs to feed on the leaves before the egg is placed on it. Many butterflies use chemical signals, pheromones, and specialized scent scales (androconia) and other structures (coremata or ‘Hair pencils’ in Danaidae) developed in some species.
Vision well developed in butterflies and the species most sensitive to the ultraviolet spectrum. Many species show sexual dimorphism in the patterns of UV reflective patches color vision may be broad but it has been shown only in some species.
Some butterflies have organs of hearing and some species are also known to make stridulatory and clicking sounds. Simak
Butterflies live almost the entire surface of the earth, both hot climates or cold climates, lowland and highland. Butterfly habitat is a damp place that has many flower vegetation, water bodies and a lot of sunlight. Species of butterfly found in many areas of tropical rain forest. There are about 28,000 species of butterflies in the world. Butterflies can fly if his body temperature above 80 degrees Fahrentheit if not the butterflies will do warm up before flying. Butterflies can fly the fastest around 30 Mph (miles per hour) and the slowest. about 5 Mph. Swallowtail butterfly female with a size of about 5 to 28 cm capable of laying over 500 eggs.