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Butterfly : the secret behind the marvelous wings

created by : zefania maleeva ^^

 

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

1.1 Abstract

Butterfly are animals that have a lot of uniqueness, from metamorphosis to the way a beautiful flight. Butterfly is one kind of insect species of wildlife that has a beautiful color and shape of the wing. In nature, the butterfly has an important value, that is as pollinators in the process of fertilization rates. This ecologically butterfly  participate in maintaining the role of ecosystem balance and enrich biodiversity. Butterflies usually live in terrestrial habitats and species composition varies according to habitat conditions. Diversity of butterfly species and its habitat is very wide from lowland to high mountain forests, 0000-2000 masl. Courtyard house is one of the butterfly habitat. The existence of the butterfly is influenced by vegetation composition and environmental conditions around and magnitude of human disturbance. Economically, the butterfly has a high selling value and is a recreational object. The economic potential is what causes the butterfly much sought after by foreign tourists, either to enjoy its beauty in the wild or to be collected as a memento, or for the benefit of science. Survival of the butterfly is supported by the availability of plants as food resources, both at the larval stage (caterpillar), as well as on the stage of imago (adult butterflies), and the availability of plants that can serve as a protector. In addition, the factor is also needed enough light, clean air, and water as the materials needed to maintain humidity environments where these butterflies alive. Adult butterflies on average a month old. in the wild age shorter because of predators, disease, or other factors. extremes such as Monarch butterflies, Mourning cloaks, and tropical heliconian can live up to nine months, the smallest butterfly is only one week old. Butterflies, including species of insects in classification, it’s  grouped as the order Lepidoptera, the insect wings covered in scales. The number of species of butterfly that has been known throughout the world is estimated there are about 13 000, and probably several thousand species in the determination of pending. Butterfly including animals that help the pollination of plants, called the pollinator. Butterflies live almost all over the world. According to a note in the world there are about 20,000 species of butterflies. Indonesia is the owner of the largest butterfly in the world after Brazil. Indonesia has around 2500 species of butterfly. While Brazil’s Amazon jungle, has the highest kind of around 3000 species of butterfly. High levels of endemism are very clearly visible on the Indonesian butterfly, which reaches more than 35 percent of the total number of species was ranked first in the world.  Peru, Brazil and other countries in South America has only butterflies endemic level of less than 10 percent of the total amount of kinds. That is, the uniqueness of Indonesian butterflies far exceeds any other country in the world. Sulawesi is an island that has a unique butterfly highest in Indonesia. Of the 557 species there, as many as 239 species (more than 40 percent) are the types that can only be found in the region, eg Papilio blumei. Of the many species of butterfly in Indonesia, there are 19 species that have been included in the list of protected species in Indonesia, namely Cethosia myrina known as lace butterfly wings and was only found in Sulawesi, Trogonoptera brookiana known as the butterfly Brooke king butterflies were found in Sumatra and Kalimantan. 16 species of butterfly from the genus Ornithoptera or bird wing butterfly found in Maluku and Papua. 11 species of butterfly from the genus Troides known as the butterfly king (eg Troides hypolitus). Most are found in western Indonesia and Sulawesi, and some species are in Maluku and Papua. Bird-wing butterflies Ornithoptera aesacus which is found only on the island of Obi (North Maluku). Bird-wing butterflies Ornithoptera Croesus found only on islands in North Maluku. 60 butterfly species found in Lampung.

 

1.2 RATIONAL

Butterflies and moths (butterfly) are insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera, or ‘winged insect scales’ (lepis, scales and pteron, wings). Simply put, the butterfly is distinguished from moths aka streetwalker based on active time and physical characteristics. Butterflies are generally active during the daytime (diurnal), while gengat most active at night (nocturnal). Butterflies rest or perch with enforcing its wings, moth perched with its wings spread. Butterflies usually have a bright beautiful colors, moths tend to be dark, dull or gray. However, these differences there are always exception, so that scientifically can not hold onto that for sure. (Van Mastrigt and Rosariyanto, 2005).

Butterflies and moths is difficult to distinguish. This is understandable, given that the separation of Lepidoptera into butterflies and moths is a general classification, rather than one that is recognized by taxonomists. While the “moth” is an artificial group, defined simply as everything in the order that was not a butterfly. Butterflies, on the other hand, is a natural group, in that they are all considered to have descended from common ancestors, but they have no formal taxonomic rank.

Simply put, the butterfly is distinguished from moths aka streetwalker based on active time and physical characteristics. Butterflies are generally active during the daytime (diurnal), while gengat most active at night (nocturnal). Butterflies rest or perch with enforcing its wings, moth perched with its wings spread. Butterflies usually have a bright beautiful colors, moths tend to be dark, dull or gray. However, these differences there are always exception, so that scientifically can not hold onto that for sure.

In addition to the above differences, the butterfly moth fields can also be distinguished by looking at the characteristics of physical features namely through:

  • Antennae. Most butterflies have thin, slender, filamentous antennae, which are club-shaped at the end, while moths often have comb-like or feathery antennae, or filamentous and unclubbed. This distinction is the basis for the non-standard taxonomic divisions in the Lepidoptera—the Rhopalocera (“clubbed horn,” the butterflies) and the Heterocera (“varied horn,” the moths).
  • Wing coupling mechanisms. Many moths have a frenulum, which is a filament arising from the hindwing and coupling with barbs on the forewing. The frenulum can be observed only when a specimen is in hand. Butterflies lack these structures.
  • Pupae. Most moth caterpillars spin a cocoon made of silk within which they metamorphose into the pupal stage. Most butterflies on the other hand form an exposed pupa, which is also termed as a chrysalis.
  • Coloration of the wings. Most butterflies have bright colors on their wings. Nocturnal moths on the other hand are usually plain brown, gray, white, or black and often with obscuring patterns of zigzags or swirls, which help camouflage them as they rest during the day. However many day-flying moths are brightly colored, particularly if they are toxic. A few butterflies are also plain-colored, like the Cabbage White butterfly.
  • Structure of the body. Moths tend to have a stout and hairy or furry-looking bodies, while butterflies have slender and smoother abdomens. Moths have larger scales on their wings that make them look more dense and fluffy. Butterflies, on the other hand, possess fine scales. This difference is possibly due to the need for moths to conserve heat during the cooler nights, whereas butterflies are able to absorb solar radiation.
  • Behavioral differences. Most moths are nocturnal or crepuscular, while most butterflies are diurnal. Moths usually rest with their wings spread out to their sides. Butterflies frequently fold their wings above their backs when they are perched, although they will occasionally “bask” with their wings spread for short periods.

However, because there are many exceptions to each characteristic, may be better to think of butterflies as a group-to-day flying moths.

A major study combining morphological and molecular data, concluded that Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Riodinidae could all be strongly supported as monophyletic clades, but the status of Nymphalidae is equivocal. Lycaenidae and Riodinidae were confirmed as sister taxa, and Papilionidae as the outgroup to the rest of the true butterflies, but the location of Pieridae within the pattern of descent was unclear, with different lines of evidence suggesting different conclusions. The data suggested that the moths of Hedyloidea are indeed more closely related to the butterflies than to other moths.

Some older classifications recognize additional families, for example Danaidae, Heliconiidae, Libytheidae, and Satyridae, but modern classifications treat these as subfamilies within the Nymphalidae.

Presently, butterflies are classified in two superfamilies, Hesperioidea, consisting of the ‘skippers,’ and Papilionoidea, or ‘true butterflies.’ Skippers differ in several important ways from the remaining butterflies. Skippers have the antennae clubs hooked backward, have stocky bodies, and possess stronger wing muscles and better eyes. However, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea are considered sister taxa, so the butterflies collectively are thought to constitute a true clade. Some modern taxonomists place them all in superfamily Papilionoidea, distinguishing the skippers from the other butterflies at the series level only. In this system, Papilionoidea consists of the series Hesperiiformes (with one family only, the skipper family Hesperiidae) and the series Papilioniformes (with five families). When skippers are classified in the superfamily Hesperioidea, it also includes the one family, the Hesperiidae.

The five families of true butterflies usually recognized in the Papilionoidea are:

  • Family Papilionidae, the Swallowtails and Birdwings
  • Family Pieridae, the Whites and Yellows
  • Family Lycaenidae, the Blues and Coppers, also called the Gossamer-Winged Butterflies
  • Family Riodinidae, the Metalmark butterflies
  • Family Nymphalidae, the Brush-footed butterflies

Butterflies and moths so many kinds. In Java and Bali alone recorded more than 600 species of butterflies. Type moths so far have not made the full list, but suspected there were hundreds of species (Whitten et al., 1999). Butterflies also become one of the few types of insects that are harmless to humans.

Many people who like beautiful butterflies, but otherwise very few people who do not feel disgust at the caterpillar, though both are the same creature. All types of butterflies and moths through the stages of life as an egg, caterpillar, chrysalis, and finally metamorphosed into a butterfly or moth. Butterflies generally live by sucking nectar (nectar / flower essence). However, some species like the fluid sucked from the fruit that fell on the ground and decay, carrion, bird droppings, and wet soil.

Unlike butterflies, caterpillars live mainly by eating leaves. Caterpillars are very greedy, but generally each type of leaf eating caterpillars specialize plant species that only certain. So the presence of a species of butterfly in one place, is also determined by availability of host plants, which become larvae.

Arts butterfly was amazing. This creature, with wings of different colors and the graceful way of flying like living jewels .. However, a great way is not the only feature of a butterfly. Short-lived creatures sometimes perform such calculations are done by experts. For example, as a moth, which we discussed before, the body heat of a butterfly must be at a certain level so that he can fly. Let us look at what butterflies do to overcome this problem. Colia butterfly can not fly when its body temperature below 28oC (83oF). If it this way, the butterfly opens its wings to open the upper side in order to hit the sun, and collected abundant sunshine at right angles. If the body temperature rises to 40oC (104oF), the butterflies will rotate 90 degrees, then receive sunlight horizontally. With this action, the butterfly can absorb heat through the wings as little as possible, so that their body temperature decreases.

In addition, this butterfly species has a small dark spots on its wings. These spots, which serves to maintain a higher body temperature, not in any place. The spots are located near the points of the body most in need of warmth. Thanks to this special design, delivery of hot spots that warms quickly to the other body parts become easier because of the distance that must be taken to transmit the heat is now shortened. Other species of butterfly in the same way to increase their body temperature. other species of butterfly wings in the sun to direct such a way that all the rays focused on certain parts of the body most in need of warmth, in the same way as a lens to work.

Butterfly makes Indonesia got the nickname “The Kingdom of Butterfly”. This is reasonable because Indonesia is a tropical country which has the largest tropical forest in the world. As is known, the tropical forest is the habitat most preferred by butterflies.
Because many species of butterflies that live in Indonesia, the people of Europe are interested to explore it. Although not known for certain, the people of Europe, especially from England, has been exploiting a wide range of butterfly species from Indonesia since the 1800s.

Not only that, a British scientist, Alfred Russel Wallace in the period 1856-1867 managed to find hundreds of species of butterflies are fluttering in the forests of Indonesia. However, the number of butterfly species continued to decline every year. According to estimates, approximately 50% of butterfly species from Indonesia have become extinct. The forest reduced to be the cause of the disappearance of a number of butterfly species in Indonesia. Plus the exploitation of wild butterflies for insectarium and research. That is why wealth terjarah butterflies and several species have become extinct. If found, the only child types or subspecies. From the result, of about 17 500 species of butterflies of the world, not less than 1600 species spread across Indonesia. The amount is only rivaled in the tropical South American countries like Peru and Brazil. Butterflies in Indonesia certainly has the endemic distribution. That means, the habitat of certain species of butterflies exist in only one region in Indonesia. Of the 1600 species of butterflies that are spread in Indonesia, approximately 30% are endemic distribution. Therefore, a lot of butterflies in Indonesia is unique in having the world’s highest diversity of butterflies in Indonesia continued to decline and disappear. Increasing human populations and forests over the function that eliminates destruction of trees is a major factor Indonesian endemic butterflies. Most densely populated island of Java island as its human population, most often exploited by the butterfly. From the data obtained, in Java there are about 500 species of butterflies. However, the increasing human population and the increasing transfer of functions of forests, causing the butterfly population Java increasingly driven into the forest. In addition, the butterflies also have a very important value, and can be grouped into economic values, ecology, endemism, conservation, aesthetic, educational and cultural values.

1. Economic Value.

There are several types of butterflies that have a significant economic value because it has a selling price in the market is quite high. Not only the imago that can be sold in the form of a souvenir, but rather a cocoon has a relatively high export value.

2. Aesthetic value.

Butterflies have a very high aesthetic value because of the color of its wings a charming and very artistic. These colors are sometimes a camouflage as a strategy to avoid or frighten predators.

3. Value of Education.

The butterfly has a high educational value, in which students and students can conduct research on various aspects of these butterflies.

4. Value of endemism.

Some species of butterflies have endemism values, whether in the form of regional endemism, islands and local endemism. Type of local endemism is very vulnerable to extinction, thus requiring the most attention.

5. Conservation Value.

Several species of butterfly has a high conservation value because the status of endangered. This also applies to species of butterfly endemic, especially the local endemic status.

6. Cultural Values.

Society has long used the butterfly resources, whether for sale or simply used as decoration. Even recently, society has can make soufinir of butterfly wings arranged in the form of decorative and fine arts valued.

1.3 OBJECTIVE

1.3.1 Butterfly Metamorphosis

1.3.2 Anatomy of a Butterfly’s body

1.3.3 butterfly life cycle and habitat for butterflies

1.3.4 Causes of butterfly wings have many colors

1.3.5 Types of Butterflies butterfly in Sulawesi

1.4 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

1.4.1 How the butterfly morphed?

1.4.1 How the body anatomy of butterflies?

1.4.3 How is the life cycle of butterflies and butterfly habitat?

1.4.4 What causes the butterfly wings have many colors?

1.4.5 What type of butterfly butterfly in Sulawesi?

1.4 GOALS

writing this paper aims to

1.4.1 Fulfillment of the paper work to Mr. Ch. Kahuweka

1.4.2 Find out more information about the life of Butterfly

1.5 METHODOLOGY

1.5.1 The research method used in the writing of this paper is descriptive   research.
1.5.2 Techniques used in the writing of this paper is a review of the literature.

 

 

CHAPTER II

CONTENT

2.1 BUTTERFLY METAMORPHOSIS

Life cycle is made up of the stages that a living organism goes through during its lifetime from beginning to end. A butterfly undergoes a process called complete metamorphosis during its life cycle. This means that the butterfly changes completely from its early larval stage, when it is a caterpillar, until the final stage, when it becomes a beautiful and graceful adult butterfly. Unlike many insects, butterflies do not experience the period of nymphs (immature insects, whose shape is that the adults), but must go through the pupa stage, which lies between the larva and adult stage (imago).

* Eggs

* The larvae, known as caterpillar

* Pupa (cocoon)

* Adult butterfly (imago)

 

  • Ø Eggs

The first stage of the life cycle of the butterfly is the egg or ovum. Butterfly eggs are small, varying in color and may be spherical, cylindrical or oval. Female butterfly eggs attached to the leaves or stems of plants that will also serve as a suitable food source for the larvae when they hatch.

Butterfly egg consists of layers of hard-ridged outer shell, called the chorion. It is coated with a thin layer of wax, which prevents the egg from drying out before the larvae have time to fully develop. Each egg contains a number of small funnel-shaped opening at one end, called micropyles, the purpose of these holes is to allow sperm to enter and fertilize an egg. Butterfly and moth eggs vary greatly in size between species, but they all either round or oval.

Butterfly eggs are fixed to the leaf with a special glue which hardens rapidly. As hardened, the egg shape deformation contract. This glue is easily seen around the base of each egg, forming a meniscus properties of glue is unknown and is a suitable subject for research . Same glue is produced by the pupa to secure the setae of the cremaster. This glue is very hard that the silk, the setae are glued, can not be separated.
Eggs are usually laid on plants. Each type of butterfly has its own range hostplant and while some butterfly species restricted to one crop, others use various types of plants, often including family members of the public.

Egg stage lasts several weeks in the butterfly, but the eggs are placed closest to the winter, especially in temperate climates, go through diapause (resting) stage, and hatching can occur only in the spring .. Other butterflies may lay them in the spring and they hatch in the summer. Butterflies are typically northern species, such as the Mourning Cloak (Camberwell Beauty) and the Large and Small Tortoiseshell butterflies.

  • Caterpillar

Larvae, or caterpillars, which hatch from eggs is the second phase in the life cycle. Hard outer skin or exoskeleton, however, did not grow or stretch along with caterpillar rearing. In contrast, the old exoskeleton is shed in a process called molting and replaced by an exoskeleton, a new and larger. Silkworm as much as possible through 4-5 molts before becoming a pupa. Larvae, or caterpillars, are multi-eat-legged machine. They consume plant leaves and spent almost all their time looking for food. Butterfly larvae, or caterpillars, consume plant leaves and spent almost all their time looking for food. Although most herbivorous caterpillars, some species such as epius Spalgis and brassolis Liphyra are entomophagous (insect eating).

 

Some larvae, especially those of the Lycaenidae, form associations with ants. They communicate with the ants using vibrations that are transmitted through the substrate and using chemical signals. The ants provide some degree of protection against these larvae and they in turn gather honeydew secretions.

Caterpillars mature through a series of stages, called instars. Towards the end of each instar, the larvae have apolysis process called, in which the cuticle, which is a tough cover mixtures of chitin and specialized proteins, is released from the epidermis epidermis and begin to form a new cuticle beneath. At the end of each instar, larva molts the old cuticle, and the new cuticle rapidly hardens and pigments. Development of butterfly wing patterns begins by the last larval instar.

 

Caterpillar has three pairs of true legs from the chest segments and up to 6 pairs of prolegs arising from the abdominal segments, but not always, have a few pairs of true legs, along with several pairs of false legs or prolegs. These prolegs have rings of small hooks called crochets that help them grip the substrate.

 

Some caterpillars have the ability to inflate parts of their heads to look like a snake. Many false eye-spots to enhance this effect. Some caterpillars have special structures called osmeteria which turned out to produce a chemical smell.

 

Host plants often have toxic substances in them and caterpillars are able to confiscate substances and retain them into the adult stage. This helps make them uncomfortable for birds and other predators. unpalatibility is advertised using bright red, orange, black or white warning. Toxic chemicals in plants are often evolved specifically to prevent them from being eaten by insects .. Insects in turn develop countermeasures or use this poison for their own survival. This “arms race” has led coevolution of insects and their host plants.

 

 

  • Ø Wing development in larval stage

 

Butterflies come from the specialized and prolific lineage of holometabolous insects, which means that wings or wing pads are not visible outside of the larvae, but when larvae dissected, tiny developing “wing disk” can be found on the second and third thoracic segments, where the spiracles are clearly on abdominal segments. Wings or wing pads are not visible outside of the larvae, but when larvae dissected, tiny developing wing disks can be found on the third and second segments of the chest, where a clear spiracles on abdominal segment.

Wing disks develop in relation with the trachea that runs along the bottom of the wings, and surrounded by a thin membrane peripodial, associated with the outer epidermis of larvae with small channel.

Wing disks develop in relation with the trachea that runs along the bottom of the wings, and surrounded by a “membrane peripodial,” associated with a thin outer epidermis of larvae with small channels.

 

Wing disks are very small until the last larval instar, when they increased dramatically in size, that attacks by branching tracheae from the wing base that precede the formation of wing veins, and begin to express the molecular markers in patterns associated with several landmarks of the wing .

Near pupation, the wings are forced outside the epidermis under pressure from the hemolymph (fluid in the circulatory system is open), and although they are initially quite flexible and fragile, when the pupa breaks free of the larval cuticle they have adhere closely to the outer cuticle of the pupa (in pupae obtect .) Within hours, the shape of the wing cuticle so hard and well to join the body that pupae can be taken and handled without damage to the wing.

 

  • Ø Pupa

The third stage is known as a pupa or chrysalis. caterpillar attached to the twig, a wall or some other support and exoskeleton splits open to reveal the chrysalis. cocoon that hangs like a small sack until the transformation to a butterfly finish. Casual observer might think that because the pupae are moving very little happened during this “resting stage.” However, in that the structure of silkworm cocoon shell is broken down and reconstituted into the body, wings and feet of adult butterflies. pupae do not feed but instead get their energy from food eaten by the larvae stage. Depending on the species, the pupa stage can last for several days or may last for more than a year. Many butterfly species overwinter or hibernate as pupae.

When the larva exceeds a minimum weight at a certain time of day, it will stop eating and begin to “wander” in an attempt for a suitable pupation site, usually the lower leaves. These larvae turn into pupae (cocoons), which later turned into a butterfly by metamorphosis. To change from the miniature wings visible on the outside of the pupa into large structures that can be used to fly, the wings of pupae experienced rapid mitosis and absorb a lot of nutrients. If one wing of early surgery, the other three will grow to a larger size. In the pupa, the wing structure that becomes compressed from top to bottom and pleated from proximal to distal end such as growing, so quickly can be folded to full adult size. Some of the limits shown in the adult color pattern are marked by changes in the expression of specific transcription factors in early pupae.

When the larva is fully grown, hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) are produced. These larvae turn into pupa (or chrysalis) by anchoring itself to the substrate and moulting for the last time. s. pupae are usually unable to move, although some species can move quickly abdominal segments or produce sounds to scare off potential predators.

Transformation chrysalis into a butterfly through metamorphosis has held great fascination for mankind. To change from the miniature wings visible on the outside of the pupa into large structures that can be used to fly, the wings of pupae experienced rapid mitosis and absorb a lot of nutrients. If one wing of early surgery, the other three will grow to a larger size. In the pupa, the wing structure that becomes compressed from top to bottom and pleated from proximal to distal end such as growing, so quickly can be folded to full adult size. Some of the limits shown in the adult color pattern are marked by changes in the expression of specific transcription factors in early pupae.

 

  • Adult Butterfly or Imago

The fourth and final stage of the adult life cycle. After the split casing chrysalis, the butterfly emerged. This will eventually mate and lay eggs to start the cycle all over again. Most adult butterflies live only one or two weeks, while some species can live for 18 months.

Today, sexually mature, stage of the insect known as the imago. For Lepidoptera, butterflies have four wings covered with small scales, but, unlike most moths, the fore-and hindwings are not hooked together, allowing more graceful flight. A butterfly has six legs, larva also has six true legs and a number of prolegs but in nymphalids, the first pair is reduced. After it emerges from the pupa stage, he can not fly for some time, because it has not folded its wings. A butterfly emerging need to spend some time ‘inflating’ wings with blood and letting them dry, as long as it is very vulnerable to predators.

Some butterfly wings’ may take up to three hours to dry while others take about an hour. Most butterflies and moths will remove excess dye after hatching .. This fluid may be white, red, orange, or in rare cases, blue.

 

2.2 ANATOMY OF A BUTTERFLY’S BODY

Butterflies have a body that consists of 3 parts, namely the head, thorax (chest) and abdominal (stomach). Like other insects, the body of the butterfly in the crutch by the outer frame of “exoskeleton” where the muscle and internal organs attached on the inner side. Head and chest is equipped with muscles that act as a means of motion of the mouth parts and wings. Largely outside the framework of an impermeable layer of chitin is not soluble in water and organic acids. In nature, dead insects, can only be in Destroy with the help of microorganisms.

 

1. head

Head movement was limited butterflies, consists of six sections. The first three sections associated with 3 components namely sensory compound eye, single eye and antenna or antennae. Three other head segments associated with the mouth. Mandible (lower jaw) butterfly originally as a means biter, reduced maxillary, adapted as a means of suction, tube-shaped parts of a united, called a proboscis. When the proboscis is not being used in the roll, and can extend back to suck the nectar of flowers. Palpus labialis, is a very sensitive part of the lips as a tentacle.

The antenna, located at the tip of the head and movable in all directions, usually soft like yarn. In some families, the antenna end portion enlarged, hairy, shaped like a comb on both sides or even shaped like a feather. The antenna is also equipped with nerve cells that serves as the olfactory and touch. Compound eyes located on either side of the head, which is composed of optical unit called omatidia. Butterflies have a sharp eye remedy especially at close range, so the butterfly could fly among the trees. In addition to having compound eyes of butterflies have oceli or single eye. Oseli is hidden or covered by fine hairs. So oseli difficult to see without revealing these hairs. The function of this oseli not fully known perhaps as a tool to sharpen the vision of compound eyes work.

 

 

 

2. thorax

Thoracic butterfly is very different from the head and abdomen. This thoracic place attach head connected by a thin membrane that is the neck so the head can be in motion. Thoracic butterfly comes with a strong joints to form a box, which completely contains the muscle, divided into protoraks, mesotoraks and metatoraks. Pair of front legs attached to the pro-thorax, while the middle legs and the pair front wings attached to the meso thorax. Meta thoracic attach the rear leg pair and pair rear wing. The second and third thoracic vertebra (meso and metatoraks) is a strong supporter of the second pair of butterfly wings. In addition to the legs and wings, on both sides of the thorax is equipped with 2 pairs of spiracles hole, which serves sebgai breathing hole. Butterfly leg consists of koksa, trockhanter, femur, tibia and tarsus. Tarsus usually 5 vertebra which is equipped with a pair of nail. The number of these segments of tarsus vary widely depending on gender. The front legs of butterflies are usually very sensitive, very useful in recognizing the existence of nectar, flowers or partner. Besides the butterfly leg sometimes equipped with a spine or spur that is useful to assist walking.

Butterfly wings are generally almost triangular in shape, but some butterfly families vary widely. Butterfly wings on the cover by fine scales, under microscope looks very different shape is a rounded, elongated and there which resemble arrows. The scales are made of butterfly wings become colorful. The wing is the most important organ for the movement of butterflies in the form of a thin membrane and is equipped with the veins so that strengthen the wings attach to the thorax. Distribution of veins is the same in every species of butterfly. Or branching shape and arrangement of streaks or veins wing (when scales removed) can be one of the characteristics to identify species of butterfly.

 

 

 

 

3. Abdominal (stomach)

Stomach butterflies are basically consists of 10 segments, with the last segment experienced a genital modification. On the sides of the abdomen, there are 6 to 7 pairs of spiracles. In the abdomen there are means of digestion, heart, organs of excretion and genital organs, as well as a complex system of muscles.

 

 

 

2.3 BUTTERFLY LIFE CYCLE AND HABITAT FOR BUTTERFLIES

Life cycle of a butterfly adult average only about 2 weeks. An adult butterfly on average a month old. Butterflies in the natural age shorter because predators, diseases, as well as a larger moving objects like cars. Even so, as described North American Butterfly Association, there is also an extreme such as Monarch butterflies, Mourning cloak, and the tropical heliconian that can live up to nine months. In contrast the smallest butterfly is only one week old. Overall life cycle begins with eggs (eggs), caterpillar (larva / pupa / caterpillar), pupa (chrysalis), a butterfly (butterfly) or moth (moth). In a short life cycle, some species of butterflies can migrate in certain seasons such as the type of Mourning Cloak, Painted Lady, American Lady, Red Admiral, Common Buckeye and migrating from Mexico to avoid the dry season into the northern United States by taking 4000 to 4800 km distance (2500-3000 miles). (Image: Red Admiral Butterfly).

 

Butterflies, like other animals, also interact to humans, such as in the depiction of motifs in the culture of some tribes (the Egyptian people have used the butterfly as hieroglyphs around 3500 years ago). Butterflies can also be an insect crushing / destroying crops, especially from the family / family Tortricidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae. But more (usually / almost all) is useful in pollination (pollination) plants.
Especially for Family: Bombycidae, Genus: Bombyx, Species: B. mandarina and B. mori that caterpillars produce silk fibers. Bombyx mandarina “the Wild Silkmoth” and Bombyx mori “the silkworm of the mulberry tree” or “the domesticated silk moth” is a type of moth that is cultivated in order to produce silk fibers that eventually form the silk fabric. Based on the characteristics of the van Mastrigt, silkworms should include the “moth”, not a butterfly.

  • Ø Habit

 

Butterflies live primarily on nectar from flowers. Some foods are also derived from pollen, tree sap, rotting fruit, dung, and dissolved minerals in wet sand or dirt. Butterflies play an important ecological role as pollinators. As adult, butterflies can only consume liquids through their trunks. They regularly feed on nectar and drank water from damp patches. This they do for water, for energy from sugars in nectar and for sodium and other minerals that are essential for their reproduction.

Some species of butterflies need more sodium than provided by nectar they drink from flowers. As such, they are attracted to the sodium in salt.
Besides damp patches, some butterflies also visit dung, rotting fruit, or carcasses to obtain essential minerals they need.

Butterflies feel the air for scent, wind and nectar using their antennae. antenna come in various shapes and colors. The hesperids have pointed angle or hook to the antenna.

Some butterflies, such as Monarch butterflies, which migrate. Indeed, the migration of monarch butterflies far exceeds the lifetime of an individual Monarch.

The butterfly is a complex creature. Their daily lives can be characterized by many activities. If you’re observant you can see the butterflies very much involved in following activities. To observe some activities, such as hibernation, may involve some detective work. To observe other activities such as sunbathing, this mud-puddling, or migration, you will need to be in the right place at the right time. Keep the activity log and see how many different butterflies that you can see are involved in every activity. Information from the pages of individual butterflies can give you some pointers to where (or on any crop), some activities that may occur. Antennal shape in the Lepidoptera from CT Bingham (1905) Australian painted lady feeding on flowering shrubs. Butterflies feed primarily on nectar from flowers. Some foods are also derived from pollen, tree sap, rotting fruit, dung, rotting flesh, and dissolved minerals in wet sand or dirt. Butterflies important as pollinators for some plant species, although in general they do not carry as much as bee pollen load. But they were able to move pollen greater distances.

As adults, butterflies consume only liquids and this is sucked through their trunks. They feed on nectar from flowers and also drink water from damp patches. This they do for water, for energy from sugars in nectar and for sodium and other minerals that are essential for their reproduction. Some species of butterflies need more sodium than provided by nectar. They are attracted to sodium in salt and they sometimes land on people, attracted by human sweat. Besides damp patches, some butterflies also visit dung, rotting fruit or carcasses to obtain minerals and nutrients. In many species, this behavior of mud-pelumpuran is limited to men, and studies have suggested that the nutrients collected are given as a wedding gift along with the spermatophore during mating.

Butterflies feel the air for scent, wind and nectar using their antennae. antennas come in various shapes and colors. The hesperids have pointed angle or hook to the antenna, while other families show knobbed antennae most. This antenna is rich covered with sensillae. A sense of feeling butterflies is coordinated by chemoreceptors on Tarsi, who work only on contact, and is used to determine whether the offspring of insects will lay eggs to feed on the leaves before the egg is placed on it. Many butterflies use chemical signals, pheromones, and specialized scent scales (androconia) and other structures (coremata or ‘Hair pencils’ in Danaidae) developed in some species.
Vision well developed in butterflies and the species most sensitive to the ultraviolet spectrum. Many species show sexual dimorphism in the patterns of UV reflective patches color vision may be broad but it has been shown only in some species.
Some butterflies have organs of hearing and some species are also known to make stridulatory and clicking sounds. Simak

Butterflies live almost the entire surface of the earth, both hot climates or cold climates, lowland and highland. Butterfly habitat is a damp place that has many flower vegetation, water bodies and a lot of sunlight. Species of butterfly found in many areas of tropical rain forest. There are about 28,000 species of butterflies in the world. Butterflies can fly if his body temperature above 80 degrees Fahrentheit if not the butterflies will do warm up before flying. Butterflies can fly the fastest around 30 Mph (miles per hour) and the slowest. about 5 Mph. Swallowtail butterfly female with a size of about 5 to 28 cm capable of laying over 500 eggs.

 

  • Ø Food

Stage larvae or caterpillars and adult butterflies have very different food preferences, mainly because of differences in their mouth parts. Both types of food should be available in order for the butterfly to complete its life cycle.

Caterpillars are very specific about what they eat, which is why female butterflies lay their eggs only on certain plants. She instinctively knew what plants would be a suitable food for hungry caterpillars that hatch from eggs. The caterpillar does not move much and may spend their entire lives on the same plant or even the same leaf! Their ultimate goal is to eat as much as they can so that they become big enough to pupate. Caterpillars have chewing mouth parts, called the mandible, which allows them to eat the leaves and other plant parts.

Some caterpillars are considered pests because of the damage they do to crops. Caterpillars do not need to drink extra water because they get everything they need from the plants they eat.

Adult butterflies are also selective about what they eat. Unlike caterpillars, butterflies are able to roam and find food that fits over larger areas. In most cases, adult butterflies can feed only on the various liquids. They drank through tubes like tongue called a proboscis. It uncoils to sip liquid food, and then again into a spiral coil when the butterflies do not eat. Most butterflies prefer flower nectar, but others may take some liquid found in fruit rot, in the fluid from the tree, and animal dung. Butterflies prefer to eat in sunny areas protected from the wind.

A study of University of Kentucky Entomology Department recently compared four cultivars of zinnia is generally available in respect of their attractiveness to butterflies. Click here to see the results of their research, and reprint, published their findings in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture.

 

  • Ø Basking

 

Butterflies are cold-blooded, which means they can not regulate their own body temperature. As a result, their body temperature changes in the temperature of their environment. If they are too cold, they can not fly and have to warm up their muscles in order to continue the flight. Butterflies fly during the air ranged between 60 ° -108 ° F, although temperatures between 82 ° -100 ° F is best. If the temperature drops too low, they can find a light colored stone, sand or leaves in place a bright and sunbathing. Butterflies bask with their wings spread out in order to absorb the sun’s heat.

 

  • Puddling

 

When the butterfly is too hot, they may be headed for a shady or cool areas such as stagnant water. Some species will gather in shallow sandy mud puddles or wet areas, mineral-rich drinking water. Generally more men than women and it is believed that the pool of salt and nutrients in a pool of water necessary for mating success.

 

  • Patrol and perch

There are two methods that male butterflies may use to look for female partners. Maybe patrol or flying over certain areas where other butterflies active. If you see a couple maybe, he will fly to take a closer look. Or, conversely, perhaps perched on a tall plant in an area where women may exist. If a couple spots maybe, he’ll grab on to investigate. In both cases, if he found a suitable woman he will start mating ritual. If he found another man instead, fierce battle may occur.

 

  • Ø Marriage

A male butterflies have several methods to determine whether he has found a female of the species itself. One way is to look at. men will find the butterfly with wings which is the correct color and pattern. When a male view of the potential partners who will fly much closer, often behind or above the female. After the close, the man will release special chemicals, called pheromones, while it beat its wings a bit more than usual. men can also do a “courtship dance” specifically to attract females. This “dance” consists of a typical flight pattern to the type of butterfly. If females are interested he might join the male dance. They will then mate with the joining together end to end on their abdomen. During the marriage, when they join the body, male sperm through the female. As females lay eggs then pass through the tube, they are fertilized by sperm. Male butterflies often die soon after mating.

 

  • Ø Spawn

After mating with males, female butterflies have to go looking for plants to lay their eggs. Because the caterpillars that will hatch from the eggs will be very specific about what they eat, he must be very particular in selecting plants. He can identify the right kinds of plants with leaf color and shape. Just to make sure, however, he can beat the leaves with his foot. It scratches the surface of the leaf, causing a peculiar plant odor to be released. After he was sure he had found the right plant species, he would go about laying business. While lay their eggs, they are fertilized with sperm that had been stored in her body since mating. Some butterflies lay a single egg, while others may lay eggs in groups. A sticky substance that allows the eggs produced by a woman stuck in wherever he put them both on the bottom of the leaves or on stems.

  • Ø Hibernate

Butterflies are cold-blooded and can not withstand winter conditions in an active state. The butterfly can survive the cold weather by hibernating in a protected location. They may use the peeling bark, annual plants, or the old wooden fence as their overwintering sites. They may hibernate at each stage (egg, larva, pupa, or adult) but in general every species that is active only in one stage.

 

  • Ø Migration

Another way that a butterfly can escape the cold weather is to migrate to warmer regions. Some butterflies migrate, like a painted lady and the cabbage butterfly, just fly a few hundred kilometers, while others, like the king of thousands of travel miles.
Monarchy is considered champion long-distance migration of butterflies, travel as much as 4000 miles round trip. They started their flights before autumn sets in cold, heading south from Canada and the United States in the north. Monarchy migrate to warmer climates of California, Florida and Mexico, making the trip in two months or less and feed on nectar along the road. After arriving at their destination south, they will spend the winter break for the flight back. Some indigenous adults actually completed the journey home. In contrast, females mate and lay eggs along the way and their descendants to finish this incredible journey.

Other well known migratory species including Painted Lady and a few butterflies Danaine. Spectacular and large scale migrations associated with the rainy season seen in peninsular India. Migration has been studied in recent times using wing tags and also using stable hydrogen isotopes.

Butterflies have been shown to navigate using time compensated sun compass. They can see polarized light and therefore orientation even in cloudy conditions. Polarized light in the near ultraviolet spectral region are advised to be extremely important.

It is suggested that most migratory butterflies are those belonging to the semi-arid areas where breeding seasons are short. Life-history of their host plants also influence the strategies of butterflies.

Butterfly wings (Leopard Lacewing Cethosia cyane) becomes increasingly damaged by age, and is not improve . Butterflies are threatened in their early stages by parasitoids and in all stages by predators, disease and environmental factors. They protect themselves in various ways.

Chemical defenses are widespread and largely based on chemicals derived from plants. In many cases the plants themselves evolve toxic substances as protection against herbivores. Butterflies have evolved a mechanism to absorb the toxins of plants and use them instead to defend their own. Defense mechanisms are effective only if they are also well advertised and this has led to the evolution of bright colors in the butterfly uncomfortable. These signals can be mimicked by other butterflies. Mimetic forms are usually limited to women.

 

  • Ø Camouflage

Butterflies and caterpillars are eaten by birds, spiders, lizards and other animals. Most of the powerless against a lot of hungry predators, Lepidoptera has developed a number of passive manner to protect themselves. One way is by making himself inconspicuous through the use of camouflage.

Caterpillar may protectively colored or have a structure that allows them seem to disappear into the background. For example, many green caterpillars, making them difficult to detect because they blend in with the leaves of the host. Some larvae, especially in the Tropics, bears resemblance to bird droppings, the guise that makes them unattractive to potential predators.

Color and pattern of a butterfly’s wings can allow to blend with the surroundings. Some people may look like dead leaves on the twigs when they rested with their wings closed. Under the wing of a comma and question mark butterflies help them to go unnoticed while hibernating in leaf litter.

Color and pattern of a butterfly’s wings can allow to blend with the surroundings. Some people may look like dead leaves on the twigs when they rested with their wings closed. Under the wing of a comma and question mark butterflies help them to go unnoticed while hibernating in leaf litter. Eyespots in butterfly wings is part of the defense of animals

Cryptic coloration is found in many butterflies. Some like the oakleaf butterfly are remarkable imitation of the leaf. As caterpillars, many defend themselves by freezing and appearing like sticks or branches. A few caterpillars resemble bird papilionid stopped early instar. Some caterpillars have hairs and hairy structures that provide protection while others are gregarious and form dense aggregations. Some species also form associations with ants and gain their protection (See Myrmecophile).

Behavioural defenses include perching and wing positions to avoid striking. Some female butterflies Nymphalid known to keep their eggs from parasitoid wasps.

Eyespots and tail are found in many lycaenid butterflies and these distract predators from the head area is more important. An alternative theory is that the predators attack causes such as the spider approached from the wrong end and allow for early detection of visual. A rear wing butterfly is expected to allow the butterfly to take a quick, tight turn to avoid predators.

 

  • Ø Polymorphism

Many adult butterflies showed polymorphism, showing differences in appearance. These variations include geographic variants and seasonal forms. In addition, many species of women in various forms, often with mimetic forms. Sexual dimorphism in color and appearance is widespread in butterflies. In addition, many species show sexual dimorphism in the pattern of ultraviolet reflectivity, while if it appears identical to the human naked eye. Most butterflies have a sex-determination system is represented as ZW with females as the heterogametic sex (ZW) and homogametic male (ZZ).

Genetic abnormalities such as gynandromorphy also occur from time to time. In addition many butterflies are infected by Wolbachia and infection by bacteria can cause the conversion of men to women or selective killing of males in the egg stage.

 

  • Ø Mimicry

Heliconius butterflies from the tropics in the Western Hemisphere classical model for müllerian mimicry. Müllerian mimicry Batesian and butterflies are common. Batesian mimics imitate other species to enjoy the protection of their attributes are not shared, aposematism in this case. Mormon General of India has morphs that mimics the female red-bodied swallowtails delicious, Common Rose and Crimson Rose. Müllerian mimicry occurs when aposematic species evolve to resemble each other, presumably to reduce predator sampling rates, Heliconius butterflies from the United States is a good example.

Signs Wing called eyespots are present in several species, this may have a role automimicry for some species. In other countries, the function may be inter-species communication, such as mate attraction. In some cases, however, the functions of butterfly eyespots is not clear, and may be an evolutionary anomaly related to the relative elasticity of genes that encode spots.

 

 

  • Ø Seasonal polyphenism

Many tropical butterflies have distinctive seasonal forms. This phenomenon is called seasonal polyphenism and the seasonal form of a butterfly called the dry season and wet-season form. How the season affects the genetic expression pattern is still the subject of research. Experimental modification of the ecdysone hormone treatment has been. Shows that it is possible to control the continuum expression variation between the dry and rainy seasons. The dry-season forms are usually more cryptic and have suggested that the protection offered possible adaptation. Some also show greater dark color in the wet-season form which may have thermoregulatory advantages by increasing ability to absorb solar radiation. Anynana Bicyclus is a type of butterfly that shows a clear example of seasonal polyphenism. The butterfly, endemic to Africa, has two different phenotypic forms of alternative according to season. Wet-season form must be large, ventral eyespots are very clear while the dry season form has been greatly reduced, often absent, eyespots stomach. Larvae that develop in hot, wet conditions to grow into adulthood where the wet-season like that grows in the transition from wet to dry season, when the temperature decreases, develop into mature dry season. Adaptive polyphenism has a role in anynana B. In the dry season, it hurt to have a striking eyespots because B. anynana mingled with brown vegetation better without eyespots.

By not developing eyespots in the dry season they can more easily disguise themselves in brown brush. This minimizes the risk of mediated visual predators. In-season rains, brown butterflies can not easily rely on vague color for protection because of background green vegetation. Thus, the eyespots, which can serve to reduce predation, which is beneficial for anynana B. to express.

 

 

 

  • Ø Monarch Butterflies

Many butterflies, such as Monarch butterflies, which migrate and capable of long-haul flights. They migrate during the day and use the sun to adjust. They also see polarized light and use it for orientation when the sun is hidden.
Many butterfly species maintain territories and actively chase other species or individuals that may stray into them. Some species will bask or perch on chosen perches. Flight butterfly style often characteristic and some species have courtship flight display. Basking is an activity that is more common in cooler morning hours. Many species will adapt themselves to gather heat from the sun. Some species have evolved dark wingbases to help collect more heat and is especially visible in the form of alpine.

 

  • Ø Flight

Like many other members of the insect world, the lift generated by butterflies is more than what can be accounted for by steady-state, non-transitory aerodynamics.

Studies using Vanessa atalanta in a windtunnel show that they use a wide variety of aerodynamic mechanisms to generate force. These include wake capture, vortices at the wing edge, rotational mechanisms and Weis-Fogh ‘clap-and-fling’ mechanisms. The butterflies were also able to change from one mode to another rapidly.

2.4 CAUSES OF BUTTERFLY WINGS HAVE MANY COLORS

When we look at the wings of a butterfly, we will see that there is perfect symmetry to it. The wings are like lace is adorned by various patterns, highlights, and color, each of which is a remarkable work of art.

In the wings, patterns and colors on both sides will be exactly the same as though viewed seteliti possible. Even the smallest point will be found on both wings, which thus shows the symmetry and order that is not flawed at all.

The patterns are elegant and assertive on the butterfly show that living beings are not the result of an incident which happened to such claims Darwin’s theory of evolution, but rather comes from the creation of a great and flawless.

In addition, none of the colors in these thin wings mingled with each other. Actually, these colors are formed through the accumulation of tiny scales that composed each other. Is not this a miracle how the small scales, which are very easily spread when touched hands, can be arranged very neatly and accurately on both wings without the slightest mistake, so as to produce exactly the same pattern.

In fact, the displacement or position error of a single scale will destroy the symmetry wing and destroy its beauty. However, we will never find any chaos wings of butterflies in the world. The wings were very neat and graceful as if created by the artist.

 

Butterfly wings look so beautiful, because the wings have scales colorful and lined the meeting. Butterfly color very much, when we see a butterfly with the same color means that a butterfly species. If taken, the wing scales of butterflies will become translucent.

Butterflies can be distinguished group, male or female by looking at color and wing pattern. That is one reason too many colors and patterns on butterfly wings. And besides, the wings of a butterfly has the function to hold water. Wing scales of butterflies have different forms and types of each species. This type of butterfly wing scales function in a pattern and color on the surface of the wing. Color patterns of butterfly wings are unique and individual. The color of the wing scales depending on the structure and optical properties of scales. Structure scales correlated with pigmentation. Pterin pigment melanin and give color of yellow, red, brown, and black. The color of butterfly wings is different have different functions. Pattern and color scales is an important factor in thermoregulation.

Butterflies are characterized by their scale-covered wings. The coloration of butterfly wings is created by minute scales. These scales are pigmented with melanin that give them blacks and browns, but blues, greens, reds and iridescence are usually created not by pigments but the microstructure of the scales. This structural coloration is the result of coherent scattering of light by the photonic crystal nature of the scales. The scales cling somewhat loosely to the wing and come off easily without harming the butterfly.

Apparently, sparkling color of the wings of several types of butterflies are not produced by pigments, but by special geometric formation of the cell.
wing has a small structure called giroid, which can diffraction the sunlight to be crystal . Giroid sunlight like a boomerang shaped like a stack, with three ends, oriented in the opposite direction. The result, he was like a fan or wheel. Giroid is a special type of double-layered giroid.

Double Giroid found in various biological systems and synthetic, and he was found in specialized parts of plants and animals that have evolved over millions of years to obtain optimal function ‘butterflies modify giroid into a single unique structure, which causes the wave length of light can passed except one, which is reflected. Size giroid structure that determines its color. This causes a single giroid very attractive for use in optics or in solar energy technology. They can create the color longer, and do not fade like pigment.

In polymer-based photonic crystals, which must be done is to do engineering in order to produce material that has a single giroid structure, the butterfly has been doing it for millions of years, and we can use this material on the butterfly as a blueprint for producing single giroid.

Butterfly wings look so beautiful, because the wings have scales colorful and lined the meeting. Butterfly color very much, when we see a butterfly with the same color means that a butterfly species. If taken, the wing scales of butterflies will become translucent.

Butterflies can be distinguished group, male or female by looking at color and wing pattern. That is one reason too many colors and patterns on butterfly wings. And besides, the wings of a butterfly have the function to hold water.

Wing scales of butterflies have different forms and types of each species. This type of butterfly wing scales function in a pattern and color on the surface of the wing. Color patterns of butterfly wings are unique and individual. The color of the wing scales depending on the structure and optical properties of scales. Structure scales correlated with pigmentation. Pterin pigment melanin and give color of yellow, red, brown, and black. The color of butterfly wings is different have different functions. Pattern and color scales is an important factor in thermoregulation.

 

2.5 Types of Butterflies butterfly in Sulawesi

 

Hundreds of species of butterflies live in Indonesia. According to a note in the world there are about 20,000 species of butterflies. Indonesia is the owner of the largest butterfly in the world after Brazil. Indonesia has around 2,500 species of butterflies. While Brazil in the Amazon jungle, has the largest species of about 3,000 species of butterflies.

Sulawesi is an island that has a unique butterfly highest in Indonesia.
Of the 557 species there, as many as 239 species (more than 40 percent) are the kind that can only be found in the region. Here are some butterflies that exist in Sulawesi

In the world there are about 20,000 species of butterflies. Indonesia is the second owner of the largest butterfly in the world of Indonesia about 2,500 species of butterflies. Brazil in the Amazon jungle have the highest kind.

 

Butterflies in Indonesia for more unique and diverse, comprising more than 17,000 islands, the separation of butterfly habitats geographically. Butterflies 50 percent of Indonesia is endemic butterfly which means that only live in that place. Amazon only has a butterfly endemic level of less than 10 percent of the total number of type.

 

Sulawesi is an island that has a unique butterfly highest in Indonesia. Of the 557 species there, as many as 239 species (more than 40 percent) are the kind that can only be found in the region.

 

20 species of butterflies in Indonesia have been included in the list of protected species through Government Regulation No. 7 / 1999. Among others Cethosia myrina known as lace wing butterfly found only in Sulawesi, Trogonoptera brookiana known as the Monarchs Brooke found in Sumatra and Kalimantan.

 

16 species of butterfly from the genus Ornithoptera or bird wing butterfly found in Maluku and Papua. are 11 species of butterflies from clans Troides known as the Monarchs (eg Troides hypolitus), mostly found in western Indonesia and Sulawesi, and some types are in Maluku and Papua. bird-wing butterflies Ornithoptera aesacus found only on the island of Obi and bird wing butterfly Ornithoptera croesus which is only found on islands in North Maluku. 60 butterfly species found in Lampung

Cethosia myrina

 

beautiful butterfly fairy wings, crown princess, a million lace color, owned by Indonesia’s uniqueness. As an archipelago, Indonesia proper course is known as the endemicity, the country which has a variety of unique, travelers spread pretty flora and fauna, stunning. highest endemicity clearly visible in the butterfly, reaching more than 35% of the total number of species was ranked first in the world. Indonesia awarded the diversity of butterfly species are plentiful. Of the estimated 17,500 species of butterfly in the world, no fewer than 1,600 species of which are spread in Indonesia.

The wealth of this kind simply unmatched by tropical countries in South America, like Peru and Brazil which have about 3,000 species. Of the many species of butterflies in Indonesia, there are 19 species that have been included in the list of protected species in Indonesia, namely Cethosia myrina known as the butterfly wings of lace and was only found in Sulawesi. The beauty of butterflies can be seen from a variety of forms of beautiful wings. Even  some species of butterflies in Indonesia to be endemic to an area. So it will not be found anywhere in the world like Cethosia myrina. Butterflies are known as lace wing butterfly found only in Sulawesi.

 
Troides hypolitus
Classified as a butterfly type of king who has a wingspan of 20 centimeters wide. In addition to the clan Troides Sulawesi live in Maluku and Papua in a different color.

Papilio blumei
Bedumei real name is, but because of wrong pronunciation of the people of Europe, the butterflies are found in May 1965 and better known as blumei. Measuring about 10 inches.

Troides helena
Man
Upperside of the forewings are rich black velvet with adnervular pale lines on either side of blood vessels outside the cell. cilia are short, black, interspersed with Buffy pale white in the middle of the sidelines.

Hindwing: flip stomach, oblique apical half of the first interspace, the termen broad, basic cell and the coastal areas up to and including half basal interspace 7 black velvet, silk-rich residual yellow wings, while prominent but narrow vein black; margin in the border terminal The resulting black into cone-shaped into prominent sign on the sidelines.

All specimens have one or more black spots on the sidelines postdiscal, but never the full range, in 2 interspace and sometimes also in interspace 3 spots are fused with the projection cone-shaped black border terminal. Below the fold are solid masses Buffy belly-scented white cotton puberty. Under similar, adnervular pale stripes on the front wings wider and more prominent.

Hindwing: wide margin back in black, with black long hair crawling weak; an interspace with postdiscal large oval black spot terminals, 2 interspace with black spots postdiscal generally separate from the projection of the cone-shaped black terminal border; apical and lateral margin of between 2-6 irrorated pale yellow with black scales.

Antenna, head and chest black, narrow collar of red, yellow belly, shaded over with black; beneath: thorax with lateral patches of red, buff colored anal segment.

Women
Top and bottom sides of these women similar to those in men, but with differences as follows:
* Fore wing: pale stripes adnervular wider and more prominent.
* Hindwing: black at the base and along the costal margin wider, occupying fully one-third of the cell, the area above it and above vein 7, interrupted, however, in 7 interspace near the top of the wing, with a yellow cross that is sometimes subobsolete; series postdiscal large oval black spots, which is in between 2 and 3 are often joined on the upperside the terminal cone-shaped black mark; backs wider margin also black, without the outskirts of black hair and or course stomach-fold. Antenna, head and chest as in men;. Abdomen dark brownish black above

Troides haliphron

Troides staudingeri has at times been considered a subspecies haliphron Troides. celebensis Subspecies-taxon status is uncertain. It has been placed in criton Troides, and oblongomaculata Troides. This may be a hybrid with Hephaestus Troides helena.

Papilio peranthus
peranthus Papilio is a butterfly of the family Papilionidae. It is found from the Philippines and Malaysia to Indonesia (including Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi) wingspan is 70-90 mm.
Subspecies
* Papilio peranthus peranthus (Java)
* Papilio peranthus adamantius C. & R. Felder, 1865 (Celebes)
* Papilio peranthus intermedius Snellen, 1890 (Tanadjampea, Bonerate, Kalaotoa)
* Papilio peranthus fulgens Rober, 1891 (Bonerate, Lombok, Sambawa, Flores, Pura, Adonara)
* Papilio peranthus baweanus Hagen, 1896 (Bawean)
* Papilio peranthus transiens Fruhstorfer, 1897 (Lesser Sunda Islands)
* Papilio peranthus insulicola Rothschild, 1896 (Saleyer)

Research conducted by Mappatoba Precepts of Hasanuddin University in 1998 reported that not only the butterflies are reduced from year to year, but their feed crops already on the brink of extinction.  Food that is popular with butterflies on them Aristolocia togala, food sources for the silkworm butterfly species Troides helena, Troides haliphron, and Troides hypolitus.

Sangilu plant species (Rutaceae) butterfly caterpillar food Papoli adamantius, and Passiflora sp into food plants butterfly Cethosia myrana. Whereas
normal adult butterflies sucking nectar fluid hibiscus (Hibiscus
rosa-chinensis). Some types of plants that butterflies liked the Lontara sp, Ficus, Annona muricata, Annona squoma,

The population of butterflies in the world, especially Indonesia, decreased in line with the reduction in forest area. Therefore, to determine the condition of butterfly populations in Indonesia, Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB) Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) to immediately conduct an inventory and data collection.

 

Peggie Djunianti revealed, from about 1,600 species of butterflies in the world, there are approximately 96 species of butterflies live in KRB. Some species of butterflies are endangered and protected by the government, among others, of the genus Ornithoptera (butterfly wings), Troides (Monarchs), Trogonoptera (butterfly tattoo Brooke), and Chetosiamyrina (lace butterfly wings Sulawesi). Some species ornithoptera, according to him,  among other things, Ornithoptera goliath who live in the forests of Papua. Giant butterflies the size of about 13 to 15 inches is the largest butterfly in Indonesia and the second largest in the world.

Butterflies of the world’s largest species of Ornithoptera alexandra is a rather large size of little Ornithoptera  goliath  and live in the forests of Papua New Guinea. Butterfly ”this is one giant stay rare butterfly species are protected”, he said. In fact, there are butterfly species are already extinct namely, Papilia lamsacus. Based on the latest inventory data, a butterfly species was inventoried in 1949 by a Dutch researcher, MA Lieftinck. Researchers found these butterfly species live in the area of Bogor, Sukabumi, and Bandung.

According to him, rare butterflies need to be protected, because there are collectors of butterflies, especially from abroad who dare to buy a good price. Therefore, according to him people need to be reminded to maintain the preservation of butterflies for balance and diversity of nature.

 

 

CHAPTER 3

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

  • CONCLUSIONS

Not excessive if a butterfly is said as a prim Donna among other invertebrate animals. Wings are beautiful and interesting to attract the hearts of many people. The composition of the tile roof similar scales on butterfly wings give color shades and patterns, and this is the basis of name of this insect group, namely Lepidoptera.

Indonesia was awarded the diversity of butterflies are plentiful. Of the estimated 17,500 species of butterfly in the world, no fewer than 1,600 species of which are spread in Indonesia. The wealth of this kind simply unmatched by tropical countries in South America, like Peru and Brazil which have  about 3,000 species.

Picture of the diversity and richness of species of butterflies Indonesia can be seen here. Butterfly specimens stored properly at the Laboratory of Entomology, Division of Zoology, Bogor Zoological Museum and Research Center for Biology Indonesian Institute of Sciences.

Indonesia’s geographical situation is very supportive of wealth treasure of flora and fauna Nusantara, with elements of Asian influence in the western region, the elements in eastern Australia, and the influence of these two elements in the Wallacea region.

Of about 1,600 species of butterflies, some scattered throughout Indonesia, while others can only be found in some particular island.

As an archipelago, Indonesia is unique in terms of the distribution of fauna, known as the endemicity. High level of endemicity seen clearly in the butterfly Indonesia, which reaches more than 35 percent of the total number of species, was ranked first in the world.

Peru, Brazil and other countries in South America has only butterfly endemic level of less than 10 percent of the total number of type. That is, the uniqueness of Indonesian butterflies far exceeds any other country in the world.

Sulawesi is an island that has a unique butterfly highest in Indonesia. Of the 557 species there, as many as 239 species (more than 40 percent) are the kind that can only be found in the region, for example Papilio blumei.

The butterfly is also used as a symbol of the amazing metamorphosis. In the changing phase of life (egg-caterpillar-pupa-adult butterfly), indeed many animals that also undergo a similar metamorphosis, such as mosquitoes, wasps, and  beetles. However, because the beauty of the adult form is in stark contrast with the shape pre-adult, butterfly are often highlighted. Thus, the butterfly is often a source of inspiration and motivation for many people.

Like other animals, butterflies also face the threat of scarcity and extinction, mainly due to land conversion and habitat. Most butterfly species depend on one or two types of plants, commonly referred to as host plants, so that threats to these species is tantamount to threatening the existence of the butterfly.

If a species of butterfly that act as pollinators for fruit trees or other potential crops, the loss of butterflies will negatively affect crop production. Linkage of butterfly that is very close to its host plants creates habitat conservation efforts increasingly necessary.

Of the many species of butterflies in Indonesia, there are 19 species that have been included in the list of protected species in Indonesia, namely Cethosia myrina known as the butterfly wings of lace and was only found in Sulawesi, Trogonoptera brookiana known as the butterfly- Brooke king butterflies that are found in Sumatra and Kalimantan.

Six species of butterfly from the genus Ornithoptera known as bird wing butterfly found in Maluku and Papua. The 11 species of butterflies from clans Troides known as the Monarchs (eg Troides hypolitus), mostly found in western Indonesia and Sulawesi, as well as several species are in Maluku and Papua.

There are many other butterfly species that deserve protection status for a variety of threats faced. For example, bird-wing butterflies Ornithoptera aesacus which is only found on the island of Obi and bird wing butterfly Ornithoptera croesus which is only found on islands in North Maluku, need immediate attention and protection.

The butterfly has attracted the attention of many people since long that the exploration activities of collecting various types of butterflies have also been conducted in various parts of the Earth, including in the area of the archipelago. Currently not too much found a new species of butterfly, but it is also possible the discovery of new species from all over the archipelago.

In addition to finding new species as recorded history, excavation potential butterfly also should continue to be done. The contribution of the butterfly against medical science progress is quite significant. So much potential and a butterfly charm Indonesia so we should make room for their survival.

 

  • SUGGESTIONS

 

  • Be a younger generation that is able to continue the conservation of marine ecosystems by utilizing existing technology.
  • Government should continue to make efforts in conservation of marine ecosystems.
  • Young people should raise awareness about marine ecosystems and critical thinking about problems which will come.
  • Relying on a sense of concern for the environment and to refresh and broaden understanding of the meaning of sustainability, then we can reduce the negative impacts that will arise.

 

 

 

 

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